- Infectious Diseases of Livestock
- Part 3
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: AEROBIC ⁄ MICRO-AEROPHILIC, MOTILE, HELICAL ⁄ VIBROID GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: SPIROCHAETES
- Swine dysentery
- Borrelia theileri infection
- Borrelia suilla infection
- Lyme disease in livestock
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: AEROBIC ⁄ MICRO-AEROPHILIC, MOTILE, HELICAL ⁄ VIBROID GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
- Genital campylobacteriosis in cattle
- Proliferative enteropathies of pigs
- Campylobacter jejuni infection
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC OR CAPNOPHILIC RODS AND COCCI
- Moraxella spp. infections
- Bordetella bronchiseptica infections
- Pseudomonas spp. infections
- Brucella spp. infections
- Bovine brucellosis
- Brucella ovis infection
- Brucella melitensis infection
- Brucella suis infection
- Brucellosis in wildlife
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC GRAM NEGATIVE RODS
- Klebsiella spp. infections
- Escherichia coli infections
- Salmonella spp. infections
- Bovine salmonellosis
- Ovine and caprine salmonellosis
- Porcine salmonellosis
- Equine salmonellosis
- Yersinia spp. infections
- Haemophilus and Histophilus spp. infections
- Haemophilus parasuis infection
- Histophilus somni disease complex in cattle
- Actinobacillus spp. infections
- Actinobacillus lignieresii infections
- Actinobacillus equuli infections
- Gram-negative pleomorphic infections: Actinobacillus seminis, Histophilus ovis and Histophilus somni
- Porcine pleuropneumonia
- Actinobacillus suis infections
- Pasteurella and Mannheimia spp. infections
- Pneumonic pasteurellosis of cattle
- Haemorrhagic septicaemia
- Pasteurellosis in sheep and goats
- Porcine pasteurellosis
- Progressive atrophic rhinitis
- Contagious equine metritis
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: ANAEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE, IRREGULAR RODS
- Fusobacterium necrophorum, Dichelobacter (Bacteroides) nodosus and Bacteroides spp. infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI
- Staphylococcus spp. infections
- Staphylococcus aureus infections
- Exudative epidermitis
- Other Staphylococcus spp. infections
- Streptococcus spp. infections
- Streptococcus suis infections
- Streptococcus porcinus infections
- Other Streptococcus spp. infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: ENDOSPORE-FORMING GRAM-POSITIVE RODS AND COCCI
- Tyzzer's disease
- Clostridium perfringens group infections
- Clostridium perfringens type A infections
- Clostridium perfringens type B infections
- Clostridium perfringens type C infections
- Clostridium perfringens type D infections
- Malignant oedema⁄gas gangrene group of Clostridium spp.
- Clostridium chauvoei infections
- Clostridium novyi infections
- Clostridium septicum infections
- Other clostridial infections
- Neurotoxin-producing group of Clostridium spp.
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: REGULAR, NON-SPORING, GRAM-POSITIVE RODS
- Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: IRREGULAR, NON-SPORING, GRAM-POSITIVE RODS
- Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections
- Corynebacterium renale group infections
- Bolo disease
- Actinomyces bovis infections
- Trueperella pyogenes infections
- Actinobaculum suis infections
- Actinomyces hyovaginalis infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: MYCOBACTERIA
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: ACTINOMYCETES
- Rhodococcus equi infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: MOLLICUTES
- Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
- Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
- Mycoplasmal pneumonia of pigs
- Mycoplasmal polyserositis and arthritis of pigs
- Mycoplasmal arthritis of pigs
- Bovine genital mycoplasmosis
- Bovine haemobartonellosis
- MYCOTIC AND ALGAL DISEASES: Mycoses
- MYCOTIC AND ALGAL DISEASES: Pneumocystosis
- MYCOTIC AND ALGAL DISEASES: Protothecosis and other algal diseases
- DISEASE COMPLEXES / UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY: Epivag
- DISEASE COMPLEXES / UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY: Ulcerative balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis of sheep
- DISEASE COMPLEXES / UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY: Ill thrift
GENERAL INTRODUCTION: AEROBIC ⁄ MICRO-AEROPHILIC, MOTILE, HELICAL ⁄ VIBROID GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
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AEROBIC/MICRO-AEROPHILIC, MOTILE, HELICAL/VIBROID GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
A General Introduction has been added to each disease chapter in an attempt to give a brief updated overview of the taxonomic, biological and other characteristics of the virus family or group of bacteria /protozoa that cause disease in livestock and, where relevant, involve wildlife. As the text of the three-volume book Infectious Diseases of Livestock is currently under revision the Editors are aware that there are inconsistencies between the updated introductions to chapters and the content of the chapters themselves. Once the chapters have been updated – a process that is currently underway – these inconsistencies will be removed.
This group of bacteria is mostly classified in the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria with bacteria of veterinary importance belonging to the Campylobacter group that consists of the genera Campylobacter and Arcobacter, and the Helicobacter group.5, 10 An exception is Lawsonia, which falls in the delta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are characterized by having helical or vibroid cell forms that may have less than one too many complete helical turns. They are all motile by virtue of the action of their polar flagella moving in straight lines with a characteristic corkscrew- like motion.
Although there are several genera within this group, only the genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and Lawsonia are of veterinary importance. These bacteria are usually found in the gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts.
Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, a cause of an infertility syndrome in cattle known as bovine genital campylobacteriosis, and C. fetus subsp. fetus, which is found in the intestinal tract, can cause abortions in domestic ruminants (Table 1). The thermophilic campylobacters, C. jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. coli, are associated with diarrhoea in animals and can be transmitted to humans via the ingestion of faecally contaminated meat or other material.
Helicobacter spp. are found either in the stomach or intestinal tract of animals. The type species is associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach in humans. In animals several Helicobacter species have been isolated from the stomach but their association with disease has not been clarified for all the species. Helicobacter acinonychis and H. bizzozeroni have been associated with gastritis in cheetah (Acinonyx jabatus) and domestic dogs respectively.1, 3
Species of the aerotolerant Arcobacter that are associated with abortions and enteritis in cattle and pigs are A. skirrowii, A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus.10, 11 Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus have been isolated from humans suffering from bacteraemia, endocarditis, peritonitis and diarrhoea.4
Lawsonia intracellularis, the only species in the genus Lawsonia, is an obligate intracellular pathogen affecting cells of the ileum in pigs and is associated with the porcine intestinal adematosis complex (which includes four different enteropathic syndromes).6
Lawsonia intracellularis or a L. intracellularis-like organism has also been associated with a similar disease in weaned three- to seven-month-old foals, known as ‘equine proliferative enteropathy’.2, 11, 12 These foals are lethargic, become emaciated and are hypoproteinaemic. Diarrhoea may be absent, mild, or profuse, watery and chronic.2, 7, 11 Signs of colic and oedema of the ventral aspects of the body and conjunctivae have also been reported in some affected foals.2, 7 On histopathology a multifocal hyperplasia of the intestinal crypt epithelium with primarily a lymphocytic in flammatory response was noted especially in the ileum and distal jejunum,2, 7, 11 but, in some, it may involve the entire small intestine. Although the disease has proved to be fatal in most of the reported cases, the combination of side-to-side anastomosis between the mid-portion of the jejunum proximal to visible lesions to the caecum together with parental erythromycin therapy resulted in full recovery of a foal.7 In one outbreak treatment of affected foals on a farm with parenterally administered erythromycin for two to three weeks resulted in clinical improvement.7
Other bacteria that are similar in morphology but are currently unclassified5 and do not belong to the genus Spirillum, are ‘Spirillum’ minus, the cause of a form of rat-bite fever in humans and monkeys known as Soduku,9 and ‘Spirullum’ pulli that is associated with diphtheroid stomatitis in chickens.
Table 1 Common pathogenic Campylobacter species that cause disease in livestock
|CAMPYLOBACTER SPP.|| |
ANIMAL SPECIES AFFECTED
|C. fetus subsp. venerealis||Infertility syndrome: Bovine |
|C. fetus subsp. fetus||Abortion||Cattle and sheep|
|C. jejuni||Diarrhoea |
|C. coli||Mild diarrhoea||Pigs|
- EATON, K.A., DEWHIRST, F.E., RADIN, M.J., FOX, J.G., PASTER, B.J., KRAKOWKA, S. & MORGAN, D.R., 1993. Helicobacter acinonyx sp. nov., isolated from cheetahs with gastritis. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 43, 99–106.
- BEES, D.J., SONDHOFF, A.H., KLUGE, J.P., ANDREASEN, C.B. & BROWN, C.M., 1999. Lawsonia intracellularis-like organism infection in a miniature foal. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 215, 511–514.
- HANNINEN, M.L., HAPPONEN, I., SAARI, S. & JALAVA, K., 1996. Culture and characteristics of Helicobacter bizzozeronii, a new canine gastric Helicobacter sp. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 46, 160–166
- KIEHLBAUCH, J.A., BRENNER, D.J., NICHOLSON, M.A., BAKER, C.N., PATTON, C.M., STEIGERWALT, A.G. & WACHSMUTHM, I.K., 1991. Campylobacter butzleri sp. nov. isolated from humans and animals with diarrhoeal illness. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 29, 376–385.
- KRIEG, N.R., 1984. Aerobic/microaerophilic, motile, helical/vibroid, Gram-negative bacteria. In: krieg, n.r. & holt, j.g., (eds). Bergey’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology. Vol. 1. Baltimore, London: Wilkins & Wilkins.
- MCORIST, S., GEBHART, C.J., BOID, R. & BARNS, S.M., 1995. Characterization of Lawsonia intracellularis gen. nov., sp. nov., the obligately intracellular bacterium of porcine proliferative enteropathy. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 45, 820–825.
- SCHUMACHER, J., SCHUMACHER, J., ROLSMA, M., BROCK, V. & GEBHART, C.J.,2000. Surgical and medical treatment of an Arabian filly with proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 14, 630–632.
- SKERMAN, V.B.D., MCGOWAN, V. & SNEATH, P.H.A., (EDS), 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 30, 225–420.
- SKIRROW, M.B., 1990. Campylobacter, Helicobacter and other motile curved Gram-negative rods. In: parker, m.t., & duerden, b.i., (eds). Topley & Wilson’s Principals of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity, 8th edn., Vol. 2. Systematic Bacteriology. Melborne, Auckland: Edward Arnold, London.
- VANDAMME, P., FALSEN, E., ROSSAU, R., HOSTE, B., SEGERS, P., TYTGAT, R. & DE LEY, J., 1991. Revision of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella taxonomy: Emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of Arcobacter gen. nov. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 41, 88–103.
- VANDAMME, P., VANCANNEYT, M., POT, B., HOSTE, B., DEWETTINCK, D., VLAES, L., VAN DEN BORRE, C., HIGGINS, R., HOMMEZ, J., KERSTERS, K., BUTZLER, J.-P. & GOOSSENS, H., 1992. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus Arcobacter with Arcobacter butzleri comb. nov. and Arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov., an aerotolerant bacterium isolated from veterinary specimens. International Journal of Systemic Bacteriology, 42, 344–356.
- WILLIAMS, N.M., HARRISON, L.R. & GEBHART, C.J., 1996. Proliferative enteropathy in a foal caused by Lawsonia intracellularis-like bacterium. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 8, 254–256.