- Infectious Diseases of Livestock
- Part 3
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: SPIROCHAETES
- Swine dysentery
- Borrelia theileri infection
- Borrelia suilla infection
- Lyme disease in livestock
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: AEROBIC ⁄ MICRO-AEROPHILIC, MOTILE, HELICAL ⁄ VIBROID GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
- Genital campylobacteriosis in cattle
- Proliferative enteropathies of pigs
- Campylobacter jejuni infection
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC OR CAPNOPHILIC RODS AND COCCI
- Moraxella spp. infections
- Bordetella bronchiseptica infections
- Pseudomonas spp. infections
- Brucella spp. infections
- Bovine brucellosis
- Brucella ovis infection
- Brucella melitensis infection
- Brucella suis infection
- Brucella infections in terrestrial wildlife
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC GRAM NEGATIVE RODS
- Klebsiella spp. infections
- Escherichia coli infections
- Salmonella spp. infections
- Bovine salmonellosis
- Ovine and caprine salmonellosis
- Porcine salmonellosis
- Equine salmonellosis
- Yersinia spp. infections
- Haemophilus and Histophilus spp. infections
- Haemophilus parasuis infection
- Histophilus somni disease complex in cattle
- Actinobacillus spp. infections
- Actinobacillus lignieresii infections
- Actinobacillus equuli infections
- Gram-negative pleomorphic infections: Actinobacillus seminis, Histophilus ovis and Histophilus somni
- Porcine pleuropneumonia
- Actinobacillus suis infections
- Pasteurella and Mannheimia spp. infections
- Pneumonic mannheimiosis and pasteurellosis of cattle
- Haemorrhagic septicaemia
- Pasteurellosis in sheep and goats
- Porcine pasteurellosis
- Progressive atrophic rhinitis
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: ANAEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE, IRREGULAR RODS
- Fusobacterium necrophorum, Dichelobacter (Bacteroides) nodosus and Bacteroides spp. infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI
- Staphylococcus spp. infections
- Staphylococcus aureus infections
- Exudative epidermitis
- Other Staphylococcus spp. infections
- Streptococcus spp. infections
- Streptococcus suis infections
- Streptococcus porcinus infections
- Other Streptococcus spp. infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: ENDOSPORE-FORMING GRAM-POSITIVE RODS AND COCCI
- Clostridium perfringens group infections
- Clostridium perfringens type A infections
- Clostridium perfringens type B infections
- Clostridium perfringens type C infections
- Clostridium perfringens type D infections
- Malignant oedema⁄gas gangrene group of Clostridium spp.
- Clostridium chauvoei infections
- Clostridium novyi infections
- Clostridium septicum infections
- Other clostridial infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: REGULAR, NON-SPORING, GRAM-POSITIVE RODS
- Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: IRREGULAR, NON-SPORING, GRAM-POSITIVE RODS
- Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections
- Corynebacterium renale group infections
- Bolo disease
- Actinomyces bovis infections
- Trueperella pyogenes infections
- Actinobaculum suis infections
- Actinomyces hyovaginalis infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: MYCOBACTERIA
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: ACTINOMYCETES
- Rhodococcus equi infections
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION: MOLLICUTES
- Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
- Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
- Mycoplasmal pneumonia of pigs
- Mycoplasmal polyserositis and arthritis of pigs
- Mycoplasmal arthritis of pigs
- Bovine genital mycoplasmosis
- Neurotoxin-producing group of Clostridium spp.
- Contagious equine metritis
- Tyzzer's disease
- MYCOTIC AND ALGAL DISEASES: Mycoses
- MYCOTIC AND ALGAL DISEASES: Pneumocystosis
- MYCOTIC AND ALGAL DISEASES: Protothecosis and other algal diseases
- DISEASE COMPLEXES / UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY: Epivag
- DISEASE COMPLEXES / UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY: Ulcerative balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis of sheep
- DISEASE COMPLEXES / UNKNOWN AETIOLOGY: Ill thrift
- Bovine haemobartonellosis
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J J VAN DER LUGT
Melioidosis is a glanders-like disease of carnivores, rodents, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and occasionally humans. It is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei,10 and is characterized by suppurating or caseous lesions in the lymph nodes and other organs. In South Africa the disease has been reported in a goat8 while the organism was isolated from a white-eared marmoset monkey kept as a pet.9 Henning3 quotes McDouell & Varney as reporting the disease in humans in South Africa in 1947. Melioidosis is of little or no importance to the livestock industry in southern Africa.
Aetiology and epidemiology
Burkholderia pseudomallei (syn. Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Malleomyces pseudomallei and Loefflerella pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod and stains with the common stains. It can readily be isolated aerobically on ordinary culture media at 37 °C.2 The bacillus is nutritionally versatile and can be isolated from the soil and water. Infection may therefore arise from the environment rather than by transmission from animal to animal.4
Melioidosis is traditionally considered to be endemic between parallels 20 °N and 20 °S of the equator.4 A fatal case of the disease in an ox in south-eastern Queensland in Australia is described,5 it being postulated that an unusually wet summer with prolonged flooding had favoured the saprophytic growth of the pathogen. In a survey conducted in northern Queensland, 75 strains of B. pseudomallei were isolated from 48 animals including birds, pigs, sheep, goats, horses and a kangaroo.7
Clinical signs, pathogenesis and pathology
In domestic animals, the disease is usually chronic and progressive with the clinical signs varying according to the location of the lesions.3, 8 Sheep and goats may show lameness and may become paralysed in the hindquarters. Suppuration of the nasal mucous membranes, polyarthritis and meningoencephalitis are often seen. Recumbency followed by death after a week is common. The characteristic lesion of the disease comprises small nodules and abscesses in the internal organs, muscles, bones, subcutis and sometimes the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. The progression and development of the disease are thought to be similar to glanders and follow an initial septicaemia and bacteraemia with localization in various organs.1
Diagnosis, differential diagnosis and control
The typical nodules, multiple abscessation and debilitated condition of the animal may serve to differentiate melioidosis from caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats.1, 8 Isolation of the bacterium provides a positive diagnosis and the organism is easily cultured from nasal exudates and from suppurating abscesses. A polymerase chain reaction- based method has been developed to detect B. pseudomallei.6 In horses the disease must be differentiated from strangles (see Strangles) and glanders (see Glanders). In melioidosis of equids there is no lymph node enlargement or involvement of the skin and nasal mucusa.
Although tetracycline has proved effective, treatment should not be undertaken because of the risk of human exposure. Control is based on the elimination of infected animals and the disinfection of premises. No effective vaccine is available.
- BLOOD, D.C., RADOSTITS, O.M. & HENDERSON, J.A., 1983. Veterinary Medicine. 6th edn. London: Baillière Tindall.
- BUCHANAN, R.E. & GIBBONS, N.E., 1974. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 8th edn. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co.
- HENNING, M.W., 1956. Animal Diseases in South Africa. 3rd edn. South Africa: Central News Agency Ltd.
- HOWE, C., SAMPATH, A. & SPOTNITZ, M., 1971. The pseudomallei group: A review. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 124, 598–606.
- KETTERER, P.J., DONALD, B. & ROGERS, R.J., 1975. Bovine melioidosis in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal, 51, 395–398
- SURA, T., SMITH, M.D., COWAN, G.M., WALSH, A.L., WHITE, N.J. & KRISHNA, S., 1997. Polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Diagnostic Microbiology of Infectious Diseases, 29, 121–127.
- THOMAS, A.D., 1981. Prevalence of melioidosis in animals in northern Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal, 57, 146–148.
- VAN DER LUGT, J.J. & HENTON, M.M., 1995. Melioidosis in a goat. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 66, 71–73.
- VAN DER LUGT, J.J. & HENTON, M.M., 1996. Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. Unpublished observations.
- YABUUCHI, E., KOSAKO, Y., OYAIZU, H., YANO, I., HOTTA, H., HASHIMOTO, Y.M., EZAKI, T. & ARAKAWA, M., 1992. Proposal of Burkholderia gen. nov. and transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov. Microbiology and Immunology, 36, 1251–1275.
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